Ethical Hacking

Ethical hacking, also known as White hat or penetration testing or pen testing, is legally breaking into computers and devices to test an organization’s defenses. Ethical hacking is used to improve the security of the systems and networks by fixing the vulnerability found while testing.

Ethical hackers improve the security posture of an organization. Ethical hackers use the same tools, tricks, and techniques that malicious hackers used, but with the permission of the authorized person. The purpose of ethical hacking is to improve the security and to defend the systems from attacks by malicious users.

We can define hacking into different categories, based on what is being hacked. These are as follows:

Network Hacking: Network hacking means gathering information about a network with the intent to harm the network system and hamper its operations using the various tools like Telnet, NS lookup, Ping, Tracert, etc.

Website hacking: Website hacking means taking unauthorized access over a web server, database and make a change in the information.

Computer hacking: Computer hacking means unauthorized access to the computer and steals the information from PC like Computer ID and password by applying hacking methods.

Password hacking: Password hacking is the process of recovering secret passwords from data that has been already stored in the computer system.

Email hacking: Email hacking means unauthorized access on an Email account and using it without the owner’s permission.

Cyber Security

Cyber Security is the practice of defending computers, servers, mobile devices, electronic devices, networks, data from malicious attacks. Malicious attacks are done by unethical hackers. an effective cyber security, an organization needs to coordinate its efforts throughout its entire information system.

Elements of cyber encompass all the following:

  • Network security: The process of protecting the network from unwanted users, attacks, and intrusions.
  • Application security: Apps require constant updates and testing to ensure these programs are secure from attacks.
  • Endpoint security: Remote access is a necessary part of business but can also be a weak point for data. Endpoint security is the process of protecting remote access to a company’s network.
  • Data security: Inside of networks and applications is data. Protecting company and customer information is a separate layer of security.
  • Identity management: Essentially, this is a process of understanding the access every individual has in an organization.
  • Database and infrastructure security: Everything in a network involves databases and physical equipment. Protecting these devices is equally important.
  • Cloud security: Many files are in digital environments or “the cloud”. Protecting data in a 100% online environment presents many challenges.
  • Mobile security: Cell phones and tablets involve virtually every type of security challenge in and of themselves.
  • Disaster recovery/business continuity planning: In the event of a breach, natural disaster or other event data must be protected and business must go on. For this, you will need a plan. End-user education: Users may be employees accessing the network or customers logging on to a company app. Educating good habits (password changes, 2-factor authentication, etc.) is an important part of cybersecurity.

The Biggest Cyber security threats

· Social engineering

· Ransomware

· DDoS attacks

· Third party software

· Cloud computing vulnerabilities

Access control

Access control is a fundamental component of data security that dictates who is allowed to access and use company information and resources. Through authentication and authorization, access control policies make sure users are who they say they are and that they have appropriate access to company data. Access control can also be applied to limit physical access to campuses, buildings, rooms, and data centers.

Access Control Types

Physical : is a mechanical form and can be thought of physical access to a room with a key. The line is often unclear whether or not an element can be considered physical or logical access control. Physical access is controlled by software, the chip on an access card and an electric lock grant access through software. Thus, physical access should be considered a logical access control.

Logical : Logical access control tools are used for credentials, validation, authorization, and accountability in an infrastructure and the systems within. These components enforce access control measures for systems, applications, processes, and information. This type of access control can also be embedded inside an application, operating system, database, or infrastructure administrative system.

Administrative : Access control policies procedures and guidelines.

But now modern access controls combine these 3 types.


The process of authentication in the context of computer systems means assurance and confirmation of a user’s identity. Before a user attempts to access information stored on a network, he or she must prove their identity and permission to access the data. When logging onto a network , a user must provide unique log-in information including a user name and password, a practice which was designed to protect a network from infiltration by hackers.

Authentication employs different combinations of data, passcodes, QR codes, passwords, pass cards, digital signatures, fingerprint, retinal, face and voice scans to verify a users’ identity before they can access a network. Proper authentication is often provided through a solution like a secure web gateway and deployment of multiple, cohesive security protections and solutions, like next-generation firewall and endpoint protection.


Password authentication is a process that involves a user inputting a unique ID and key that are then checked against stored credentials.

Best Practices:

· Two factor authentication minimizes impact of stolen credentials

· Do not use easily guessable information such as phonenumber, birthday,address

· Create strong unique passwords unrecognizable by the dictionary.

· Change the default password of devices you buy

· Never reuse passwords between different devices and accounts

· Update password regularly

Password hacking methods : Phising, Malware, Brute force attack, Dictionary attack, Mask attack.

Machine Learning In Cyber security

Machine learning has become a vital technology for cybersecurity. Machine learning preemptively stamps out cyber threats and bolsters security infrastructure through pattern detection, real-time cyber crime mapping and thorough penetration testing.

Use cases

· Using machine learning to detect malicious activity and stop attacks.

· Using machine learning to analyze mobile endpoints.

· Using machine learning to enhance human analysis.

· Using machine learning to automate repetitive security tasks.

· Using machine learning to close zero-day vulnerabilities.

Computer Security threats

Computer Viruses

Perhaps the most well-known computer security threat, a computer virus is a program written to alter the way a computer operates, without the permission or knowledge of the user. A virus replicates and executes itself, usually doing damage to your computer in the process.

Spyware Threats

A serious computer security threat, spyware is any program that monitors your online activities or installs programs without your consent for profit or to capture personal information. We’ve amassed a wealth of knowledge that will help you combat spyware threats and stay safe online.

Hackers and Predators

People, not computers, create computer security threats and malware. Hackers and predators are programmers who victimize others for their own gain by breaking into computer systems to steal, change, or destroy information as a form of cyber-terrorism. These online predators can compromise credit card information, lock you out of your data, and steal your identity. As you may have guessed, online security tools with identity theft protection are one of the most effective ways to protect yourself from this brand of cybercriminal.


Masquerading as a trustworthy person or business, phishers attempt to steal sensitive financial or personal information through fraudulent email or instant messages. Phishing attacks are some of the most successful methods for cybercriminals looking to pull off a data breach. Antivirus solutions with identity theft protection can be “taught” to recognize phishing threats in fractions of a second.




Software Engineering undergraduate at University of Kelaniya

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Tharun varshanth

Tharun varshanth

Software Engineering undergraduate at University of Kelaniya

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